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Християнската общност в град Анхиало в периода I-XII в.


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Същата статия на английски . Както каза, Галахад за полу-английския ми ще моля за помощ. :biggrin:

Ако някой може да я редактира, за да я пуснем в отдела за чужди езици.

The facts concerning Anichalo as an early-christian habitation in the Church history is relatively low researched. Anichalo is one of the earlier Christian centers in the Bulgaria's lands. According to ancients tradition knowledge in this region for a first time has preached saint apostle Andrew (Protokletos – The First called desciple by Jesus Christ). The earliest report for his gospel preach is found in the writings of Ipolit (concerning the 12 Apostles).Here is a sentence of the original text - "Andreas, *** Scythis ac Thracibus praedicasset cruxi affixus est est Patris in Achaia, rectus in olea arbore, ibique sepelitur". A similar sources are being declared also by Dorteus (from Tirsk), Evgenius (from Cesariah), Epiphanius (from Cyprus), Evheri Lionski, Isidor (from Ispalius) and other writers of their time.This reports have been an object of a severe critics, however if we follow the critics development through the years it is observable that after a period of scepticism concerning the creditability of the ancient data reports, nowadays it is being perceived as authentic.

Therefore we can say with a good proof of data saint Apostle Andrew has preached in the Trakian lands of the Black sea coast.

It is well known that the Christian gospel preaching of the holy Apostles and their desciples in the biggest cities completes itself with the ordination of a Bishop for a head of the Christian community. It is very likely st. Apostle Andrew himself or some of his direct disciples could have been the founder the first Anchialo Church Community. In the agiographic literature (the literature kept in Holy Mount Athos),, it is still preserved the story of pasioto of saint Sebastiana – a direct desciple of saint apostle Paul. Her martyrdom occured in the christian persecution ordered by emperor Domician (81 – 96 A.D.).

She was captured in Marcianopol and lead to her birthplace land near Heraklia in order to put her in trial. The troops who escorted her from Marcianopol to Heraklia has choosed a travel path that crossed through Anchialo. Whenever, saint Sebastiana is lead by the guards in the city, she "found the desciple of apostle Paul, called Teophanus and give him and his brothers a brotherly embrace (hug)"This are most ancient of the reports we have of the Christian early preach in Anchialo dating back to the time when the holy apostles, their desciples and the so called "holy apostolics" lived.

The next oldest by line information sources are from the II-nd and III-rd century, from the times wherever the heresy of Montanism was widely spread. In relation to that describing the events and the internal Church battles Evsenii from Kesaria quotes a letter written by saint Seraphion – a bishop of Antiochia. At this letter we find the signatures of various bishops. In this letter the Bishop of Trakian colony Deultum Elius Publius Julius has signed himself with the words: "God is living in the heavens: The blessed Sotas (bishop) of Anchialo requested to drive out from Priskila but ?ποκριτα? (in most translations the word used here is hypocrites( did not allow him". A further mention of the same bishop we find in Libellus Synodicus, where it is said that the Anchialo's bishop Sotas has called an assembly (local council gathering) in Anchialo aiming to condemn the heresy of Teodot and of Montanus. On the bishop gathering present were 12 bishops. It is clear that both sources put our focus to one event – the assembly of Anchialo in which the heresies were condemned. On this same bishop assembly the organizing bishop and host of the gathering wanted to expel the devil from the Montanium heresy "prophetes" Priskila, but he was withhold by the respective "hypocratic" people as he mentions in his letter. Which are those hypocrats?

Some people claim, that by the "spirit of Priskila", we have to understand not some concrete psychomatic state of this woman, but rather that he is willing to expel the anti-christian Montan teaching from Christians inhabiting Anchialo.

If his saying is interpreted this way, then in what kind of context we have to threat the saying "that the hypocrats didn't allow him" is it that local Christians didn't allow him (quite impossible). Generally if we interpret the bishop saying that way the whole logic of the sentence is lost.

Today in greek and a number of other western languages "hypocrats" in those context it sounds completely meaningless. Rather we have to accept the more ancient translation of the text in which "hypocrats" means "interpreters/people who explain".

Priskila spoke unclear (Glossalia) and peole have been her interpreters. We read about this in the writtings of saint Paul in the "Act of the Apostles (Acts)" in the New Testament. The Glossalia teaching has been recognized in the early Church. The Montanism sect followers, believed that since they possess the Holy Spirit gifts like Glossalia, fortune telling etc., they automatically became a true conduit of the early Church teaching and hence a true representatives of the early Church (preserved from any corruptability).Sotas tried to exercise exorcism, something which is not uncommon for the period of the early Christian church. A similar case is described in Evsenius (from Kesearia), whether the Bishop Zotik (from Komana) and bishop Julianus (from Apamea) had urge to expel a demon from another "prophetes" of Montanism Maximila. We can derive from that the Montanism was widely spread in the Tracian regions and even to the Anchialo assembly was not able to completely eradicate it.After the signing of the Serdica and Milan edicts in year 311 and 313 A.D. Anchialo achieved a prestigious status in the Christian world, this is observable by the deeds of the major spiritual elders (guides) who were present in all significant Church councils evens. We can assume that the Anchialo bishop was subordinate of the Metropolitan of Heraklia, at this time he was an exarch of the diocese of Trakia. On the local council in Serdika, which was supposed to be an an Ecunumical Council a present bishop was Timothey, who later joined the Arius heresy. The heretics supporting Arius had their own illegal contra council in Philipopol.Later on the orthodox adherents took a lead in the Secound Ecomenical council, they send their own representative bishop Sebastian, who signed under all Church decisions.We should assume, that most of the half-century period (343-381) the Arius question took a central place in the local city activities as the city became an Arena of Church sharp disputes.Maybe the problems was not resolved immediately, because it is unclear what the attitude of the local Anchialo Christians was to the ongoing council disputes in Ephesus (431) and Chalkedon (451).After the Chalcedonian council Anchialo as well as the whole Chalcedonian diocese entered the juridsiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople, in accordance to his 28th rule.On the local councin in Constantinople in 459, we already see the Orthodox bishop Sabatius.At the times of the emerging "monophisite wars" and especially at the times of the ungodly rule of emperor Ansastasius Decor (491-581 A.D.), anchialo citizens took an active participance in the riot in the Byzantine country on the side of the orthodox. It as this time as we know, when few orthodox bishops from the Balkan provinces were send to prison because they confessed the Chalcedonian Creed of Faith.Here is what Malala says of the events surrounding the riot of Bytalian: "In the time of his (The Anastasius) rule a tyran ruler came named Bytalian, saying the excuse 'because of the inprisoned bishops' and took over Trakia, Scythia and Misium to Varna and Anchialo leading a big multitude of Hunes and Bulgarians".

In a similar manner are the events described by Theophanus the Confessor -

"In those year 513-514, Bytalian, taking over whole Trakia, Scythia and Mizium with the help of a multitde of Bulgarians took over Anchialo and Odesos".

In the Council of Constantinople concerning the "Three heads" dispute requested by Emperor Justinian in year 553 , later discussed in the 5th Ecumenical council, we find co-signature of an Anchialo's bishop Paul.This date we accept as "terminus post quem", onwards a re-organization is conducted of the Church stsructure and Anchialo's bishopship was rised to the status of archbishopric.

The reason for this are few:

1.The changes and reforms in the empire and army at the time of Emperor Justilian.

2.- A special army corpus 'quaestura exercitus' is created to defend the empire from the lemisus

3.The increased significance and authority of the bishop in the ancient city and his well done job in his administrative ruling of those 'Church region'

4.The apostolic relation of the episcopacy and the increased authority during the 'Church fights' in IV – VI century

The increase of status of the Anchialo's churh chair is of course not a severe precedent in Church history. During the whole post-antique period various episcopates in the empire were striving for autocephaly with the goal to preserve the right of self-edicted activities apart from the highly centralized metropolitan system. E. Gerland quotes 15 similar episcopates in the Balkans.In the complex political-economic situation, the capital Church and the empire activity used the bishop authority for the set political goals. However this didn't preserve the Anchialo church from the strikes of Avars, whose twice succesfully take over the city.According to the chronicles of Theophylactos Smocattes at the time of the Avars invasion in the end of VI century in Anchialo the Church dedicated to the warrior martyr Alexander Druziparsk was completely destroyed. In the same temple a particles of the holy relics of the saint was kept. The empress Elia Anastasia (wife of the emperor Tiberius II made a gift of crimson coffin to one of the Anchialo's church temples (some historians suggest this temple was the Cathedral). Her gift was also stolen from the Avars. It is evident at this time the city was already a famous pilgrimage center. Most likely after the re-building of the city Anchalo finally becomes autocephalus bishbishopric center.In the case, the representative of the archibishopric is independent from the Metropolitan diocese is under the direct govern of the Patriarch of Constantinople. By this becaming a legit member of the Constantinople synod (the Anchialo bishop is allowed to vote for the choice of a new Constantinople patriarch).This is also evident by the list of the bishops notices. In almost all eparchies, lists of the bishopric belonging to the Constantinople patriarchs of VII century we read Anchialo's bishopric listed. However for some unexplained reason to this day it is being listead as belong to the eparchy of Rodopa. This is somehow a contradition to the evidence that the diocese belonged to the eparchy of Hemimont, moreover Anchialo is the second by size city in it.

There is a opinion, that its placement in the eparchy of Rodopa is an error in the Pseudo-epihanius list, which later is repeated by the preceeding eparchy lists.The role of Anchialo emerges after the moving of the center of the Bulgarian country in the Balkans. A greater part of Roman Empire war expeditions against Bulgaria begin and over in Anchealo. In the administrative and war sense the city is part of thema Trakia (679-680), after the separation of Macedonia with main center Adrianopol, maybe it constituted the prior.

In VII-VIII century besides the administrative, there are also enthical changes in the city. At the time of Emperor Lion III Isavyr and his son Copronim V on the Balkans including in the Anchialo region, Mesebria and Sozopol are placed Syriac settlers and refugees from the whole Middle East. Part of them are confessing monophysitism. For instance by the agiographic data it is known that bishop Georgi Debeltski towards the end of VIII century and the beginning of IX has fighted against monophysitism which spread widely in the region.Probably his helper was the anchialo's bishop Jacob, who later became a monk in a monastery in the region Vitinia („St Cyric" - 'on the Olymp mountain')

The Chronicle writer Theophan The Confessor (indicates about some kind of restoration restoration of the fortress in 784, according to which empress Irina ordered "to build a city and name it to Irinupol. She moved also to Philipopol in all safety and she also built Anchialo". Most likely it is the same this at which Jacob was ordained for a bishop. This mentioning of restoration is a clear indicator that before that time there used to be some kind of destruction. According to academic V. Guzelev the restoration has to be explained, that in year 764 ,the Bulgarians take over and destroy the fortress. With all my respect to the academic, I have to say in the ancient written sources that in the battle near Anchialo, the Bulgarians are destroyed.This thesis for capturing the city of the Bulgarians, V. Guzelev argumentates with the "Anti-Speeches" of Patriarch Nikiphor in which it is said that in the Anachialo battle almost the whole Roman army is destroyed. The fact taht the patriarch Nikiphor in two of his creations gives a contradictious information about the outcome of the battle is explanable with the internal Byzantine empire problems at this time and more concretely the power struggles between icon admirers and the icon adversaries as well as the unexplained "love" the patriarch has for Constantine the V-th.Actrually in his anti-speaches patriarch Nikiphor says, that romains loose a big multitude of warriors but doesn't say the Romans loose the battle.In that occasion, most probably reason for the destruction of the city walls which occured in 763-784 y we have to assume an earth quake, earth drag down or some natural force implied calamity.At the march of the Bulgarian ruler Khrum in 812 in one source it is noted that: "...the chrsitians without nobody chasing them ran away and left behind Anchialo and Beroya, as well as Nicea and the fortress Provat and also some other fortifications like Philipopol and Philipi". From this incomplete source, one can derive very incorrect impression that the city was completely abandoned by the citizens and was settled down only with Bulgarian colonists.

We have another memories from the same century which indicates that part of the city population with their chiefs, stays in the Bulgarian taken territories and damages its status. This is reflected in Hambarlius writting No. 47, where its mentioned the name of Khrum - "... For the left side of my saract, for Anachialo Debelt, Sozopol, Ranuli is chief of Iratais, boil kavkhan, and Kordil and Grigora are his suboardinate."

We can assume, that at least for the period of summer (812 – 22.I.814), there is still some existent Christian community in the city. Most likely part of the Christians stays in the city and another part is interned in outer Dunabe Bulgaria. For the period of year 814-865, the church organization is completely disorganized. The bishop of the city most likely saves himself by fleeing to Constantinople or some other place in Byzantium Empire. This conclusion can be made from the absense of his mentioning with the martyrs headed by the Metropolitan of Adrianopol saint Manuil. The martyrdom of this saints took place in 22.I.81

That's how the bishop chair is emptied. After y. 864, it is very likely Anachealo is assigned a bishop throne, because it is known the inclusion of the city bishop in the Photius council (879-880 A.D.) In the period of the Simeon and Peter ruling (896/912-971 y.), Anchialo enters the lands of the Bulgarian Country and becomes under the spiritual governance of the Preslav's bishopric .

In the eparchy listings from Hv. In the Hemimontium eparchy with a head place Adrianopol are assigned south-blacksea bishopric chairs of Debelt, Sozopol and Agatopol, however this of Anchialo and Mesembria are missing.

The Byzantine empire returns back Anchialo after 971, but the listings notes the return of bishorpic to the empire happens in later time, this is evident by the the bishopric autocephaly desk appearing in listings much later in the XI century.

A report of the head persons belonging to bishopric provides only the sphragistic material, which was diligently collected by the respected professor Jordanov. Hereon is a list of the bishops of the city created by various narrative sources as well as the data contained in the sphragistic material.

1.Theodor Archibishop of Anchialo

2.Nikiphor archibishop and "advicer" of Anchialo (1070-1090)

3.Stephan Archibhishop of Anchialo in years (1160-1170)

4.Joan (John) Archibhisop of Anchialo, who took participant in a synodal conference in February 1197 A.D.

By this datings of the found 6 seals of Theodor, arhicibshop of Anchialo some date back Anchialo to the time of the Crim's peninsula. The most evident source supporting this is Herson the name of his writtings are dated to XI century.

A conclusion can be derived therefore that in the second half of the century (because of the sudden raid attacks of the Pechenegs) and a determination of significant masses of those nomad "barbaryan" nations locating south of the Dunable the situation in Paristrion was highly unstable. That is why Anchialo started playing once again a serious role in the Church administrative governance of the empire. Maybe the bishop of Anchialo made some coordination with the Metropolitan of Chersonia concerning the missionary and political actions, throughout barbarian tribes located in between region Tema Paristrion and the riverides of Danube and Dnep.It is possible that to the bishop have been granted the buy off prisoners and take care spiritually for Christians in this region whose church organization was highly disturbed.Thus after Theodor on the archibishop's chair is raised well known and associated to the crown.This is archibishop Niciphor (1090 A.D.) showing off himself in the seals as a relative of a highly positioned in the Church hierarchy prelate. Prof. Jordanov prooved that the patriarch of Antiochia Niciphor Mavros (1079-1090 A.D.) is an uncle of archibishop Niciphor.

The facts of the seals evidence:

- Niciphor ruled the Anchialo bishopric for a long time

- His discovered lead seals in (Constantinople, Sozopol, Anchialo and elsewhere) illustrated that he had many contacts with other important governing institutions

In XII century ahead of the Orthodox Church stand a lot of new challenges. After the end of the „Macedonian Renaissance" in the Romanian empire emerged new dissension about faith questions, a consequence of the dynamic deepening communal, social and religious problems.

An old heresies were resurrected, and some new movements appear for a first time. Together with the Bogomils heretical teaching spring up various heretical groups leading to local church schizms concerning the Holy Eucharist (Communion). This creates the necessity of forming of multiple synods in order to resolve this problems.It is very likely archibishop Stephan took active participation in the conference of Constantinople Council in 1166-1170 A.D. This council examined in detail the Christological dispute about the word of „Messiah" – „for the Father is greater than I' John 14:28.

This conclusion is derived due to the fact his signature is found on a few documents related tot he Council.Other well known bishop of Anchialo present on the synodal sessions in February 1197. There is no doubt the most well known achialo citizen is Michail Ritor, who was raised to the position of Oecumenical Patriarch under the name Mikhail III. It is not co-incidence that he was chosen for a rector of the philosophic school in the capital of the empire, which preceded his ordination for a head of the capital Church body. It is assumed that the born in Anchialo Michail used to be nephew of the Anchialo's bishop, but it is not known if he used to be a bishop of Anchialo himself. As a patriarch he was jeolously battling the offers of the Western Roman Catholic Church for union. His stiffness in the position of true orthodox is clearly seen in his attitude towards the representatives of the Armenian Christian Community and Armenian Church. As we can see this obviously prooves, the increasing role of Anchialo as a city in a war and church administrative important center. In the bulgarian historiography there is a proof that in XI-XII century, Anchealo had a leading significance in the black sea region.Probably the anchialo's archibishops had been assigned a serious tasks related to Christian missionary activity among the pagan tribes near Dunabe and the Black sea coast. Some of their important tasks as bishops of the region was most probably to keep a good connection with the Russian Church and serve as a shepherds among local Christians outside the boundaries of the empire.

Besides the writing sources and spharigastic datas, preserved we have also find few arheological monuments of this period.The few archeological findings, reveal various medieval materials, which doesn't contain any concrete data for Christian culture.

Most significant evidence for the early presence of Christianity in Anchialo is found in a saint holy relics preservation place in the region of the so called Kaleopastro.This are two reliquariums which compose one set. One of the parts is made of marble and the other of bronze (the bronze is to be contained in the marble). The marbel reliquarium is a non-standard produced with acroterions on its 4 edges and decorated with a low relief, depicting a cross with prolonged ending sides, which surpasses the ends of the cover. The bronze reliquarium can likened to the silver "marriage boxes", known since very ancient times, but lacking the particular decoration.

The finding of this set on this place is not a co-incidence, since Anchialo is early Christian and bishopric center. A very unusual is the form and the material from which is produced the small reliquarium. The Form of the "cult" object is very rarely encountered which surely indicates the local origin. Another bright archeological monument of the epoch is found in the yard of the monastery "Saint George", in the moment it is placed in the front door of the monastic Church. This stone relievo according to comparative analysis is determined to be hand-crafted in XI-XII century.

Unquestinably Anchialo is one of the most well known ancient Christian centers on the Balkan peninsula. Unfortunately due to a lack of systematic archeological findings, we don't have a concreate locations of the most ancient Christian temples in the region. This is still an obstacle for a detail "drawing" of the history of the Christian culture in the city. In the context of this conference I will add up, that today a new horizon of challenges open up for a collaboration work between instititutions, like administrative, scientific institutiouns, universities, museums, community centers, the private business and the Church. This together could together contribute to the detailed research and preservation of the ancient history of Pomorie, a history precious not only for the town as such but for whole Bulgaria.

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  • Глобален Модератор

Днес съм ангажиран, но в рамките на следващите 1-3 дни ще пипна английския текст. Все пак, трябва да стане както трябва, а не - да се запази полу-английското му звучене.

Стискайте палци да не стане на franglais или - на frenglish! w00t.gif

Да не споменавам, че двата текста звучат така, като че все едно са различни?!

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