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Кения-колонизация


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  • Модератор Военно дело


Оказа се, за мен
неочаквано, че Кения е била занзибарска
от 1740. Навярно все пак само крайбрежието.
През 1880 германците купуват от Занзибар
протектората над кенийското крайбрежие.
През 1890 немците обменят кения на танганика
и така Кения се оказва под британска
власт.


Споменава се, че
британците срещнали съпротивата на
вожда на Кикую /кикуите са най голямото
племе в Кения/ Вайаки Ва Хинга. Обаче,
през 1892 той бил отвлечен и убит. Имало
ли е военни действия, за какво точно е
бил спора? Засега търся информация. В
уикипедията нещата са представени много
неясно. Британците сключили съюз с
масите и заплашвали кикую че ще ги
използват срещу тях, ако те не капитулират,
но кикую оказвали силна съпротива.
Интересно в какво се е изразявала тази
съпротива? Въпросния пич е вожд на
някаква клонка Дагоретти, съпротивлявал
се е на англичаните, през 1890 те опожаряват
форт Лугард. Тоест, говорим за съпротива
на един вожд от едно племе. За мен поне
става въпрос за изолирана съпротива,
която при това продължава малко.


Голям проблем
предизвикало строителството на
угандийската жп линия, призвана да
укрепи властта на Англия в Кения и
Уганда. Строителството се извършвало
от индийци които се държали лошо с
местните жители. През 1895 500 нанди нападнали
керван от 3000 индийски работници и ги
избили, случая станал известен като
клането при Кидонго.


В 1900 избухнало
въстание на племето Нанди под
предводителството на своя вожд Койталеля
Арапа Самоеи. То било потушено едва през
1905.


Един интересен
текст, който предавам дословно.


Like
many of indigenous cultures, several Kalenjin prophets foretold the
coming of the white man. Among the Nandi, the prophesies of Mongo and
Kimnyole are best examples. However, it was only Mongo who foretold
the arrival of white people who possessed a great power, and warned
against fighting against them. Kimnyole, before his assassination,
only predicted that the confrontation would have a significant effect
upon the peoples of Nandi.



Flushed
with the victories against the other tribes and Arabs, the Nandi
warriors believed that they would succeed in protecting their
homeland. This faith was substantiated in November 1883 when a
European caravan under Joseph Thomson crossed Masailand into North
Nandi. Thomson was part of a Royal Geographical Society expedition
that numbered 100 men in a pioneer company.



The
confused and sketchy evidence of this expedition stopped the dispatch
of European caravans from Mombasa from 1883 84. Evidently, Thomson
had negotiated the west wall of the Kerio Valley and reached the top
of the Elgeyo escarpment shortly after leaving Njemps on 16 November
1883. Thomson sent out scouts to prevent his caravan from being
surprised as he continued forward five days without contacting any
Nandi. However, the column must have been attacked by Masai seeking
revenge for the cattle disease spread from European bovines in the
area.



This
insignificant event attributed to a Nandi attack, actually broke the
back of the Masai without any acknowledgement. Thomson returned to
Naivasha in March 1884, and Nandi remained a blank spot on the
European colonial maps. The next European to cross Nandi was James
Hannington, the first Bishop of Eastern Equatorial
Africa.
Hannington was an experienced explorer and employed
the aid of other explorers like Thomson and Jones. The caravan left
Rabai in July 1885, and arrived in Kabras on October 3. He left soon
after to enter Nandi, but never returned.



Thinking
that he was opening a road to salvation for the Buganda, he could not
know that his christian goals were the cause of his murder. The
Mwanga believed that such an establishment of contact would open the
Buganda to an invasion from the east. Independently, Dr. Gustav
Fischer entered North Nandi unobserved and passed through unmolested
in March 1886. This was the first German expedition into Nandi and
was so rushed that no notes were kept regarding the Nandi. The German
Colonial Office also launched a powerful caravan led by Count Teleki
and Hauptman Hohnel in 1887-88 that turned back before entering
Nandi.



Three
small European caravans had entered Nandi, but the only solid
information was gathered from the Masai who Hannington related
regarded the Nandi tribes "to be the most difficult to deal with
from its fighting powers." Seven years passed before the next
Church Missionary Society (CMS) caravan crossed Nandi. Part of the
reason that the Nandi were ignored during this period was that Emin
Pasha and Stanley had to be retrieved and that used up the military,
porters, and supply available in the area. Another part of the reason
was that the British sphere of influence beyond the land of the Masai
was being attempted.



The
Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEA) launched a 535 man
caravan led by F. J. Jackson into the unexplored area on August 6,
1889. The Sotik were friendly at first, but later attacked the
caravan. The Sotik were defeated losing 40 warriors and forfeiting
170 head of cattle and 2000 sheep and goats. Jackson then continued
to Mumias on November 7, 1889. Refusing to help the Mumia against the
Ugenya, Jackson continued to Turkana to collect ivory to defray the
cost of the expedition. When the Jackson expedition reached the land
of the Sebei it became acquainted with the Nandi.



The
expedition happened to be in the exact area that was being raided by
Nandi kiptaiyat numbering possibly 1000 warriors. The Nandi attacked
several Sebei villages and carried off 200 to 300 head of cattle in
one day. The villages attacked were destroyed and the inhabitants
killed. The expedition's hopes of being attacked by the Nandi never
developed, and with the area devastated, the expedition had no hopes
of remaining. It returned to Mumias on March 4, 1890. It was at
Mumias that Jackson negotiated a treaty that replaced the German flag
with the British flag. In 1892, the railway survey party was
appointed to determine the possibility of expanding the rail system
through Nandi. The survey went slowly as the surveyors were in
constant peril. It was estimated by some that "men armed with
Winchester rifles would have to be stationed at every 100 yards in
order to keep off the attacks of the natives." The Europeans
created a large amount of movement on the periphery of Nandi between
1890 and 1895.



For
instance, in 1894 twenty-six caravans passed through North Nandi and
in the latter half of 1895 more than forty passed over the same
tracks unmolested. The Nandi may have ignored this movement because
it didn't directly threaten them or because the caravans did not
offer enough plunder to make them worthwhile attacking. However, the
Nandi watched the caravans with a suspicious eye. The coming of war
was only a matter of time.



UN
PREDICTED WAR


The
unlikely beginning of a war began with two British adventurers, Peter
West and Andrew Dick. West arrived at Mumias on March 20, 1895. He
was a continual drunk and had been accused of being a gun-runner. He
entered into a trading partnership with the choleric Dick who had
already established a chain of stores and transport posts from the
coast to Lake Victoria. These two men set about to independently
establish domination and a trade monopoly with the Nandi. The two
began this escapade on June 23, 1895 by organizing two caravans. The
expeditions began poorly when three rifles were stolen from Dick by
the Kikelewa and one of West's men was murdered. Dick drew first
blood when two Nandi warriors surrendered and he had them whipped.



Later,
Dick had the warriors bound and drowned. A Nandi reconnaissance party
was later fired upon by Dick and dispersed after losing one warrior.
While Dick was busy antagonizing the Nandi, West had pitched his camp
two hours from the nearest Nandi houses. West's total arms included
fifteen guns, two privately owned rifles, and a revolver. West
unsuccessful attempted to negotiate for the ivory that he sought upon
his first contact with the Nandi. Although warned of the Nandi, West
persisted in his attempts to negotiate by treating the Nandi
delegates well. West's efforts were repaid at two o'clock on the
morning of July 16th, when the camp was rushed by Nandi warriors and
all but eight of the expedition were killed without a shot being
fired. West's last words were reported as, "Give me my gun."
West's unprotected camp of fifty individuals, twenty-five head of
cattle and forty-six sheep and goats had occupied the unprotected
camp in safety for twenty days.



West's
death can only be contributed to his partner being a Dick. The East
Africa Protectorate, Foreign Office, and missionary societies
administrations had no choice but to react militarily to West's
murder. All roads bordering the Nandi were closed until military
escorts could be organized from the scant resources at Mumias and
Ravine. This disrupted several commercial enterprises and two major
missionary efforts. Before West's murder the various European
administrations were content to ignore the unknown Nandi, and the
Nandi were content to ignore the Europeans. After West's murder, the
Nandi tribal morale and self-confidence increased. The Nandi warriors
had proven that the European guns were no match for the Nandi spears.



The
warriors must have believed that the Laibon had rendered the guns
useless. Maybe the ancient prophesy meant that the Nandi would begin
the end of the "white man" in sub-Sahara Africa. This idea
was reinforced by the reactions of neighboring tribes, most notably
the Wanga and Kabras. The other tribes to join included the Kamasia,
Kitoch and Kikelelwa. The Ravine garrison received news of West's
murder on July 30, 1895. The commander, Martin, had only a staff of
forty invalided porters and a partly completed fort defended by ten
askari. Fearing an attack, J. Martin enlisted seven Sudanese
"settlers" and sent for help from Mumias. C. W. Hobley at
Mumias could not comply because his scant military assets were being
thinly spread. Port Victoria under A. Brown of Smith had been
attacked on July 13, 1895.



Hobley
was forced to send twenty five askari of The Imperial British East
Africa Company (IBEAC) to support Brown of Smith. William Grant had
been ordered to assist Hobley, but Grant was busy restoring order in
Kavirondo. F. J. Jackson at Entebbe was also able to offer little
help. Acting Commissioner Hobley did put together fifty Sudanese
askaris of the IBEAC and some Baganda irregulars who he sent to aid
Grant. Twenty-five reservists were enlisted in Singo to replace those
men sent to Grant, and Singo became defended by released prisoners
from Kampala. This was all that could be done. Meanwhile, the Nandi
roamed freely seeking likely targets.



On
July 15, a caravan under G. W. Lewis of Smith, Mackenzie and Company
left Ravine with two European mechanics, twenty Indian artisans and
over 400 porters. The caravan finally reached Mumias on July 26
having lost over twenty loads to a Nandi attack on the Uasin Gishu
Plateau. Another Nandi ambush captured two rifles, a shotgun and a
loaded donkey from the Uganda Commissioner's caravan near Kabras.
Still another ambush on Bishop H. Hanlon's caravan captured the
religious relics of Father Prendergast. News of these ambushes did
not reach Ravine in time to stop a small advance party of the
Boustead, Ridley and Company from departing with beads to purchase
food for the Church Missionary Society main caravan of T. Munro and
urgent letters for Mengo.



The
advance party consisted of twenty-five contract men and six porters.
Two hundred Nandi warriors ambushed the unprotected camp at 2:00AM on
August 22. Only seven members of the party survived and reached
safety. By July 30, the IBEAC agents knew that the Nandi had been
incited to a war and took the appropriate measures, but could not
warn other caravans in time. On October 2, a caravan under Mohamed
Bau consisting of thirty rifles, two loads of spare ammunition, fifty
head of cattle and twenty sheep and goats left Guasa Masa for Ravine.
Two days out from Ravine the caravan was attacked during the night by
ten Nandi warriors and suffered the loss of eight porters and a
woman. Six men were wounded and four guns captured with 250 rounds of
ammunition after only ten shots had been fired. Forty-two of the
cattle were captured with the small stock and mail.



The
mail was returned sixteen days after the disaster. Another well armed
caravan under F. Pordage of 160 men were threatened by a large Nandi
kiptaiyat on October 13 at their camp on the Kamasai River. During
the night of October 14-15 the camp was surrounded by Nandi warriors,
but Pordage was up to the task and order three volleys fired into the
darkness by his askari. The result was the confirmation of two dead
Nandi and several blood trails. After leaving Guasa Masa, ten
Sudanese askari joined the caravan on the 15th and when the Portage
caravan camped, several Nandi were discovered attempting to set fire
to the grass surrounding the caravan.



During
the afternoon of the 16th a water porter party was attacked by thirty
Nandi warriors, but the rush was stopped by a volley from the five
askari escorting the party. The Nandi retired without loss and
contented themselves to watch the progress of the caravan outside of
gunfire range until it reached Ravine on October 21, 1895. Although
there was one more successful attack by the Nandi on a fortified
Kabras village, the Nandi appear to have been content with the
success of their raids on the Uganda Road. The operations had been
well planned and executed as the warriors had defeated several
European caravans with the loss of only two warriors.



When
provided the opportunity, the warriors had decisively struck. When
the Europeans had the advantage, the Nandi warriors possessed the
discipline to avoid a costly attack. And all this was accomplished by
raiding parties, not the combined might of the Nandi tribes. The last
months of the IBEAC forces was expended against the threats from
tribes neighboring Nandi. The Protectorate military establishment
numbered 1,200 Sudanese troops, 250 of which were reservists. The
porter establishment was chaotic, and the arms and ammunition supply
system was forwarded through Mumias from German East Africa or
Kampala. Food stuffs were an entirely different problem as local
purchases were minimal and the arrival of caravans was haphazard. The
Nandi clearly presented a threat that the IBEAC could not effectively
counter.



Доколкото разбрах,
Нанди са малък войнствен народ, езичници,
които /важно е да се отбележи/ са скопявали
жените си, изрязвайки половите им органи
за да не изпитват удоволствие по време
на секс. Традиционните им занимания са
грабежи /поради което примерно масаите
посрещат топло британците и им помагат
в борбата им с нанди/ и по малко
животновъдство.

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