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Bar Hebraeus'

Chronography

http://rbedrosian.com/BH/BH.html

The Patriarchs. From Adam to Moses

And in the one hundred and fortieth year of PALAGH the earth was divided a second time, between the sons of NOAH. And to the sons of SHEM [8] came the inheritance from the middle of the inhabited world to the limit thereof on the east, [including] PALESTINE, ARABIA, and PHOENICIA, and the country of SYRIA, and all the country between the Two Rivers (MESOPOTAMIA), and HYRCANIA, and 'ATHOR (ASSYRIA), and the country of SEN'AR (SHINAR), and BABIL, and KARDO, and all PERSIA, and NORTHERN INDIA and BACTRIANA. And to the sons of HAM [came the inheritance], the whole of the south, from east to west, INDIA (Central, Outer, and Southern), KUSH, SHEBHA, EGYPT, LYBIA, THEBAIS, AFRICA, and towards the north CILICIA, PAMPHYLIA, PISIDIA, MYSIA, PHRYGIA, LUKYA (LYCIA), LYDIA, and of the Islands [of the MEDITERRANEAN] CYPRUS, CHIOS, SICILY, and twenty others. And to the sons of JAPHET [came the inheritance], the whole of the north from east to west, the country of the 'ALANAYE (GERMANS, RB: Alans?), the TURKS, MEDIA, ARMENIA, CAPPADOCIA, GALATIA, ASIA, MYSIA, TARKI (THRACE?), 'ILADHA (HELLAS), the land of the GREEKS (IONIANS), the RHOMAYE (BYZANTINES), the SARMATIANS, the 'ASKLABHE (SCLAVS), the BULGARS, the GALLAYE (GAULS?), the SPANIARDS as far as GADIRA.

IX

The Second Kingdom of the Greeks

At this time when the army of the RHOMAYE was marching to PERSIA with MAURICIUS CAESAR, the barbarian peoples of 'ABHARIS (ABARES) and 'ASKLABHONE (SCYTHIA) and LONGOBARDY, who were subject to the KHAKAN, laid waste the countries of the RHOMAYE. And 'ADRAMON, the Warden of the Marches, arrived at EDESSA, and he burned churches, and monasteries [90] and villages. And they killed all the captives and burned their dead bodies, and through the cloud of smoke, which was so great that the sun itself was obscured, they were enabled to capture the city. And whilst they were assaulting it during three days they heard that the RHOMAYE and the ARABS with MAURICIUS had arrived; and they abandoned [the siege] and marched toward CALONICUS. Then the RHOMAYE overtook them, and killed many of them. And in the fourth year of his reign TIBERIUS fell sick of a disease in the belly and constriction of the bowels. And when he knew that he was dying, he gave his daughter AUGUSTA to wife to MAURICIUS, who was from 'ARABISOS in CAPPADOCIA, and he put the crown of the kingdom upon him; and after three days he died.

After TIBERIUS, MAURICIUS [reigned] twenty years. In the first year of his reign a son was born to him by AUGUSTA, the daughter of TIBERIUS, and he was named 'THEODOSIUS, born on the purple'. And at that time the RHOMAYE rebelled against MAURICIUS, and they set up a governor [called] GARMANOS. And when HORMIZD, king of the PERSIANS, heard [this] he sent promises to them that they would be with him (i.e. support him). They, however, despised him, and came against him for war, and they bound with fetters three thousand Persian slaves and sent them to MAURICIUS. And there was freedom of speech to them, and they returned to the subjugation of the king, and were welcome with gladness, and the king showered gifts and honour on GARMANOS.

And in the fourth year of his reign there broke forth and went out from the EAST a hateful people from 'ABARIS whose hair was plaited, and from the WEST also came the SLAVS and the LONGOBARDS. And they came under the subjugation of the KHAKAN, king of the KAZARAYE, and they captured two cities from the RHOMAYE and many of [their] fortresses. And if it had not been for the great ditch which the king had made outside ADRIANOPLE, they would have set their faces towards CONSTANTINOPLE. Then the RHOMAYE killed the people of 'ANTIO..., and they fell upon 'ASKLABHUNYA and captured it and looted it. When the 'ASKLABHONE heard this they made a great war (i.e. raid) in the country of the RHOMAYE and came back.

At this time there went forth from Inner SCYTHIA three brothers with thirty thousand SCYTHIANS. [91] And they came a journey of two months in the time of winter, for the discovery of water, that is to say [water ] from the fords of MOUNT AMON; and they arrived at the river TANIS (DONA?), which goeth out from the lake of MIANTIS and mingleth in the SEA OF PONTOS. And when they arrived at the frontier of the RHOMAYE, one of them whose name was BULGARIS took ten ships and crossed the river TANIS and pitched his camp between the rivers TANIS and DUNBIR (DON and DNIEPER?), which also mingles (i.e. flows into) the SEA OF PONTOS. And he sent to MAURICIUS [asking] him to give him land to dwell in, and [said that] he would become an ally of the RHOMAYE. And MAURICIUS gave him Upper and Lower MYSIA, and they dwelt there, and they became a guard (i.e. a buffer garrison) for the RHOMAYE. Now, though they were SCYTHIANS the RHOMAYE call them 'BULGARIANS'. Then these two other brothers came to the country of 'AL AN, which is BAR SALIA, that is to say to the towns of the CASPIAN, which the BULGARIANS and the PANGURIANS call the 'Gate of the Turks' ; they were once Christians and are now called 'KAZARAYE' after the name of the eldest brother.

..............

And in the eighth year of MAURICIUS the PERSIANS rebelled against HORMIZD, their king, and they seized him by treachery and blinded his eyes, and he died. And ten months later those who had killed him because of the multitude of his evil deeds, inclined towards his son KESRU; and they made him their king [and he reigned] thirty-eight years. Now BAHRAM, the captain of the Persian host, did not favor KESRU, and he and many people rebelled against him vigorously. Then KESRU took refuge with the RHOMAYE, and he sent a message secretly to MAURICIUS saying that he was ready to go to him if it pleased him to grant him permission. When MAURICIUS heard this he rejoiced. And he wrote [to him saying] that he would help him in everything. And KESRU rose up promptly and came to EDESSA. And IWANNIS (JOANNES), a native of RUSAFAYA, received him into his house, and honoured him greatly. And he wrote to MAURICIUS, [saying], 'Like a slave he should be to him', but MAURICIUS replied that he should honour him as a father honoureth his son. And MAURICIUS sent to JOANNES, the captain of the host of the TARKAYE, with twenty thousand soldiers, and ANASTASIUS who took with him 'ARMANAYO (ARMENIANS) and BULGARIANS-- twenty thousand. And he sent forty talents of gold for his expenses. And when KESRU received these he marched to his own country. And HORMIZAN the PERSIAN came to him with ten thousand men. Now, when the rebels heard [this] they made ready to fight, and they were defeated and turned their backs in flight, and the captains who were among them were captured and killed, and the rest returned to KESRU. Then KESRU gave many gifts to the RHOMAYE, and he sent great gifts to MAURICIUS and precious stones, and he gave back DARA and RAS'AYN to the RHOMAYE. And KESRU asked MAURICIUS and he gave him MARIA, his daughter, to wife. And bishops went down with her, and the daughter of THEODOSIUS also made a splendid feast, and the Patriarch bound on the wedding crown. And KESRU built three great temples to the God-bearer, to the Apostles, and to SERGIUS the martyr, and the Patriarch of ANTIOCH consecrated them. And Christianity spread throughout PERSIA.

X

Concerning the seating of the Khan [Ogedei] upon the throne of the kingdom of the Mongols after Chingiz Khan his father.

And because JELAL AD-DIN KHAWARAZM SHAH was at that time leaping all over the countries of KHORASAN like a stag, [the Khan] sent SHARMAGHON (JURMAGHON?) NAWIN with thirty (or, three) thousand [460] men to that quarter of the world; and SUNATAI 'AGHONESTA also with a numerous army to the quarter of the CAPPADOCIANS and BULGARIANS; and a large number of other soldiers against INDIA; and he went in person, together with the brethren and kinsfolk, to CHINA.

And at this time TUSHI, the eldest son of CHINGIZ KHAN, died. And he left seven grown-up sons who were: TAMSHAL, HARDU, BATU, SIBARAN, TANGUTH, BARAKAH, and BARKAJAR. And from among these the Khan selected BATU, and to him he handed over the northern countries of the SLAVS, and the GERMANS, and the RUSSIANS, and the BULGARIANS. And his seat was on the great river which is called 'ITIL (i.e. the VOLGA). And BATU, whilst going on the northern road from the country of the IBERIANS to the countries of the BULGARIANS and SCYTHIANS, destroyed their populations by the edge of the sword, and blotted out their kingdoms. And because the command of the Khan had gone forth in this wise: '[The troops] shall cut off the right ear of every BULGARIAN and RUSSIAN who is killed, when they counted the ears, two hundred and seventy thousand ears were found with the TATARS.

And the Khan continued to wax strong, And he prepared to attack CONSTANTINOPLE from the quarter of the BULGARIANS. And the kings of the FRANKS heard [of this], and they gathered together and they met BATU in battle, and they broke him and made him flee. And no man of the TATARS afterwards went to the country of the FRANKS. but they dwelt in the plain of CAPPADOCIA. Now the son of this BATU was called 'SARTAK'. This man loved the Christian religion and was baptized. And he learned to read and to write, and was appointed a deacon. He died on the road as he was going to the service of MANGU KHAN, as will be shown.

...........................

And in the year fifteen hundred and fifty-one of the GREEKS (A.D. 1240), in the month of HAZIRAN (JUNE), the TATARS came, and they pillaged the country from the land of the IBERIANS to the frontier of 'ARZAN AR-RUM. And the armies of the RHOMAYE were called up, and they went to ARMENIA so that they might prevent the TATARS from invading BETH RHOMAYE. And when the TATARS heard that there was a gathering [of troops], they retreated and returned to the country of the SCYTHIANS. And those of BETH RHOMAYE remained there until the winter, and then they returned to their own country. And in the year TAJ BULGHARI, the compounder of THIRYAKI (i.e. the medicine which cured all ailments), was sent as an ambassador from BETH RHOMAYE to BAGHDAD, and he died there aged ninety years.

X

The Enthronement of Munga [Mongke] Khan.

Now when BATU, the son of TUSHI, the son of CHINGIZ KHAN, moved from his camp which was in the country of the SAKSIN and BULGARIANS to go to see GHOYUK KHAN, and he came to the place which is called AL-'AKMAK, in the neighbourhood of the city of KAYALIGH, the report of the death of GHOYUK KHAN reached him.

.............................

КОЙ Е ТОЗИ КАЛОЯН/КАЛАУЙАН/КАЛОЙАН?

At this time THEODORE, the son of KALAWYAN, the king of NINEVEH, fell sick in a city the name of which was NIPI. And when he felt that he was going to die, he called to him ARSENIUS the Patriarch, and committed to him the care and upbringing of KALAWYAN his son. For as yet he was small in stature (or, of tender age), and he was at that time under the direction of a certain general whose name was MICHAEL, and who was called 'PALAIOLOGOS'. And because of this king THEODORE was afraid lest he would meditate rebellion and seize the kingdom with the hand of violence. Which thing actually took place. Therefore he commanded one of the generals whose name was GADINOS to go to THESSALONICA, where MICHAEL was living; and cast fetters of iron upon him and bring him to him. Now when GADINOS went he said unto MICHAEL, 'I know that thou art going to be king, but submit thyself to fetters with cunning, and come with me to the king. And when he seeth thy submission he will release thee and magnify thee.' And thus MICHAEL did, and he went to the king bound in fetters. And when the king saw that he was not complaining, he was gracious to him and released him, and made him a partner with the Patriarch in the management of the young man. And after a few days he departed this life. And MUZALON, his deputy, who was also the son-in-law of KIRA BALWINA, the sister of the king, took him and carried him to the Monastery of MAGNESIA, and he deposited him there in the grave of his fathers. And he tarried a few days in the monastery whilst he arranged affairs with his mother-in-law, who was the sister of the deceased king, so that he might become king, and destroy the nobles who would not consent to accept him.

And when [502] this plot was revealed to MICHAEL and the other nobles, they commanded the FRANKS who were their fellow soldiers to go up to the monastery, and to hack MUZALON in pieces with their swords, wheresoever he might be. And when they went up they found him in the church praying, and there they hacked him limb from limb. And the nobles also went up and they cried out with a loud voice, 'May the king of the GREEKS, MICHAEL PALAIOLOGOS, live [long]! May the Autocrator of RHOMANIA, MICHAEL PALAIOLOGOS, live [long]!' And they all went from there to NICAEA, and they seized the young man KALAWYAN, and they sent him and had him shut up in one of the fortresses. And they also sent ARSENIUS the Patriarch, who had rebuked them for his murder, into exile, in a monastery in one of the islands of the sea of PONTUS.

And after MICHAEL had reigned for a time he determined within himself to go and attack CONSTANTINOPLE, because he heard that there was a small army therein with BO'DWIN the Frankish king its lord. And during his journey he sent and had NICEPHORUS, the Metropolitan of EPHESUS, brought, and he made him Patriarch in the city of KALYOPOLI (GALLIPOLI) in the place of ARSENIUS, who had been exiled. And he departed from there and went and encamped against CONSTANTINOPLE, and he was unable to capture it, because the citizens and the soldiers stood up strenuously on the walls and fought fiercely. And when MICHAEL saw that he could not succeed, he left and went back.

And after a short time the Frankish merchants who were in the city of 'AKKO and were cal1ed 'BUNDIKAYE' (VENETIANS), began to quarrel with those who were called 'JANABIZ' (GENOESE), and the PIZANAYE (PISANS) attached themselves to the VENETIANS. And when the VENETIANS who were in all the other countries heard [of this], they ran without delay to the help of their companions, and CONSTANTINOPLE was empty of them. And MICHAEL himself perpetrated another fraud, and he told one of his adherents who was the captain of a fortress to show signs of rebellion, and to send a message to BO'DWIN [saying] that he must send an army, and that he would transfer that fortress to him. And the captain of the fortress did even so, and he flattered BO'DWIN and led him into error and when [503] BO'DWIN sent the little army which he had with him, MICHAEL made ready swiftly and went and encamped against it. And MICHAEL himself also flattered certain of the citizens, and one night they opened to him an old gate which had never been opened since the time of CONSTANTINE the Conqueror. And the GREEKS went in and put [the city] to the sword, and it was only with the greatest difficulty that BO'DWIN himself and his household was able to save themselves by embarking in a small shallow boat, and they fled to the FRANKS. And thus once again CONSTANTINOPLE remained in the possession of the GREEKS after belonging to the FRANKS for a period of fifty-three years. As for NICEPHORUS the unlawful Patriarch, he did not live very long, but died quickly. And king MICHAEL appointed in his place ROMANUS, the Patriarch of the city of ADRIANOPOLIS. Now this man, as soon as ever he rose up, became involved in some scandalous affair and was cast forth. Then king MICHAEL sent and brought ARSENIUS the Patriarch from exile, and he promised him that he would bring out KALAWYAN, the son of the king, from prison, and would transfer to him the kingdom of his father, and that he himself would only hold CONSTANTINOPLE, which he had taken with the sword. And the Patriarch prayed over him, and was reconciled [to him], and sat again on the [Patriarchal] throne.

Then MICHAEL, having placated the Patriarch, added wickedness to wickedness, and instead of bringing KALAWYAN out of prison and making him king, sent and had his eyeballs taken out and blinded his eyes. When the Patriarch understood this he again relinquished his office, and returned to his imprisonment. And the king brought an archimandrite whose name was JOSEPH (?) and made him Patriarch, and behold he standeth at the head [of the Church] this day. And it was in the days of winter that these wickednesses were perpetrated in MELITENE.

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ПОТРЕБИТЕЛИ С НАЙ-МНОГО ОТГОВОРИ

ПОТРЕБИТЕЛИ С НАЙ-МНОГО ОТГОВОРИ

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И МАЛКО БИОГРАФИЧНИ ДАННИ ЗА БАР ХЕБРЕЙ

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bar-Hebraeus

Bar-Hebraeus (1226 near Malatya, Sultanate of Rûm (modern Turkey) – 30 July 1286 in Maraga, Persia) was a catholicos (bishop) of the Syriac Orthodox Church in the 13th century. He is noted for his works addressing philosophy, poetry, language, history, and theology[1]; he has been called "one of the most learned and versatile men from the Syriac Orthodox Church" (Dr. William Wright).

Bar-Hebraeus was born with the Arabic name Abū'l-Faraj bin Hārūn al-Malaṭī (Arabic: ابو الفرج بن هارون الملطي‎)[citation needed]. It appears that he took the Christian name Gregory (Syriac: ܓܪܝܓܘܪܝܘܣ Grigorios; Arabic: غريغوريوس‎, Ġrīġūriyūs) at his consecration as a bishop. Throughout his life, he was often referred to by the Syriac nickname Bar-‘Ebrāyā (Syriac: ܒܪ ܥܒܪܝܐ, which is pronounced and often transliterated as Bar-‘Ebroyo in the West Syriac dialect of the Syriac Orthodox Church), giving rise to the Latinised name Bar-Hebraeus. This nickname is often thought to imply a Jewish background (taken to mean 'Son of the Hebrew'). However, the evidence for this once popular view is slim. It is more likely that the name refers to the place of his birth, ‘Ebrā, where the old road east of Malatya towards Kharput (modern Elazığ) and Amid (modern Diyarbakır) crossed the Euphrates.[2]

He collected in his numerous and elaborate treatises the results of such research in theology, philosophy, science and history as was in his time possible in Syria. Most of his works were written in Syriac. However he also wrote some in Arabic, which had become the common language in his day.

Life

A Jacobite Syrian bishop, philosopher, poet, grammarian, physician, biblical commentator, historian, and theologian, he was the son of a physician, Aaron (Hārūn bin Tūmā al-Malaṭī, Arabic: هارون بن توما الملطي‎). Under the care of his father he began as a boy (a teneris unguiculis) the study of medicine and of many other branches of knowledge, which he pursued as a youth at Antioch and Tripoli, and which he never abandoned. In 1246 he was consecrated bishop of Gubos, by the Jacobite Patriarch Ignatius II, and in the following year was transferred to the see of Lacabene. He was placed over the diocese of Aleppo by Dionysius (1252) and finally was made primate, or maphrian, of the East by Ignatius III (1264). His episcopal duties did not interfere with his studies; he took advantage of the numerous visitations, which he had to make throughout his vast province, to consult the libraries and converse with the learned men whom he happened to meet. Thus he gradually accumulated an immense erudition, became familiar with almost all branches of secular and religious knowledge, and in many cases thoroughly mastered the bibliography of the various subjects which he undertook to treat. How he could have devoted so much time to such a systematic study, in spite of all the vicissitudes incident to the Mongol invasion, is almost beyond comprehension. The main claim of Bar Hebræus to our gratitude is not, however, in his original productions, but rather in his having preserved and systematized the work of his predecessors, either by way of condensation of by way of direct reproduction. Both on account of his virtues and of his science, Bar Hebræus was respected by all, and his death was mourned not only by men of his own faith, but also by the Nestorians and the Armenians. He was buried at the convent of Mar Matthew, near Mosul. He has left us an autobiography, to be found in Assemani, Biblioth. Orient., II, 248-263; the account of his death (ibid.) was written by his own brother, Bar Sauma.

Works

Encyclopedic and philosophical

His great encyclopedic work is his Hewath Hekhmetha, "The Cream of Science", which deals with almost every branch of human knowledge, and comprises the whole Aristotelian discipline, after Avicenna and other Arabian writers. This work, so far, has not been published, with the exception of one chapter, by Margoliouth, in Analecta Orientalia ad poeticam Aristoteleam (London, 1887), 114-139. The rest is to be found only in MSS., preserved at Florence, Oxford, London, and elsewhere. (2) Teghrath Teghratha, "Commerce of Commerces", a résumé of the preceding, also unpublished. (3) Kethabha dhe-Bhabhatha, "Book of the Pupils of the Eyes"; compendium of logic and dialectics. (4) Kethabha dhe-Sewadh Sophia, "Book of Speech of Wisdom"; compendium of physics and metaphysics. To these should be added a few translations of Arabic works into Syriac, as well as some treatises written directly in Arabic.

Biblical

The most important work of Bar Hebræus is Aucar Raze, "Storehouse of Secrets", a commentary on the entire Bible, both doctrinal and critical. Before giving his doctrinal exposition of a passage, he first considers its critical state. Although he uses the Peshitta as a basis, he knows that it is not perfect, and therefore controls it by the Hebrew, the Septuagint, the Greek versions of Symmachus, Theodotion, Aquilla, by Oriental versions, Armenian and Coptic, and finally by the other Syriac translations, Heraclean, Philoxenian and especially the Syro-Hexapla. The work of Bar Hebræus is of prime importance for the recovery of these versions and more specially for the Hexapla of Origen, of which the Syro-Hexapla is a translation by Paul of Tella. His exegetical and doctrinal portions are taken from the Greek Fathers and previous Syrian Jacobite theologians. No complete edition of the work has yet been issued, but many individual books have been published at different times. (See bibliography at the end of article.)

Historical

Bar Hebræus has left a large historical work called Makhtbhanuth Zabhne, Chronicon, in which he considers history from the Creation down to his own day. Bar Hebræus utilized almost all that had been written before him. The work is divided into two portions, which have been transmitted separately.

The first portion deals with political and civil history and is known as the Chronicon Syriacum. The standard edition of the Chronicon Syriacum is that of Bedjan, Gregorii Barhebraei Chronicon Syriacum (Paris, 1890). An unsatisfactory English translation by Wallis Budge exists.

The second portion is known as the Chronicon Ecclesiasticum and covers the religious history. It begins with Aaron and consists of a series of entries of important individuals. The first half covers the history of the West Syrian Church and the Patriarchs of Antioch, while the second half is devoted to the Eastern Church, the Nestorian Patriarchs, and the Jacobite Maphrians. The current edition of the Chronicon Ecclesiasticum is that of Abbeloos and Lamy (3 vols., Louvain, 1872-77), Syriac text, Latin translation. No English translation has ever been published, although an unpublished translation by Sebastian Brock of most of the first part exists.

The Chronicon Syriacum was rendered into Arabic by Bar Hebraeus himself under the title of Ta'rîkh Mukhtasar al-Duwal, A Compendious History of Dynasties, and reworked in the process for a readership not specifically Christian. The latest and the best edition of his work is that of Fr. Anton Salihani (Beirut, 1890). A Latin translation exists in the older edition of Edward Pococke, Historia Compendosia Dynastiarum (Oxford, 1663).

Theological

In theology Bar Hebræus was a Monophysite. He probably, however, thought that the differences between Catholics, Nestorians, and the rest were of a theological, but not of a dogmatical nature, and that they did not affect the common faith; hence, he did not consider others as heretics, and was not himself considered as such, at least by the Nestorians and the Armenians. In this field, we have from him Menarath Qudhshe, "Lamp of the Sanctuary", and the Kethabha dhe-Zalge, "Book of Rays", a summary of the first. These works have not been published, and exist in manuscript in Paris, Berlin, London, Oxford, and Rome. Ascetical and moral theology were also treated by Bar Hebræus, and we have from him Kethabha dhe-Ithiqon, "Book of Ethics", and Kethabha dhe-Yauna, "Book of the Dove", an ascetical guide. Both have been edited by Bedjan in "Ethicon seu Moralia Gregorii Barhebræi" (Paris and Leipzig, 1898). The "Book of the Dove" was issued simultaneously by Cardahi (Rome, 1898). Bar Hebræus codified the juridical texts of the Jacobites, in a collection called Kethabha dhe-Hudhaye, "Book of Directions", edited by Bedjan, "Barhebræi Nomocanon" (Paris, 1898). A Latin translation is to be found in Angelo Mai, "Scriptorum Veter. Nova Collectio", vol. x. Bar Hebræus has left besides many other works. On grammatical subjects we have the "Book of Splendours" and "Book of the Spark", both edited by Martin, "Oeuvres grammaticales de Aboul Faradj dit Barhebræus" (2 vols., Paris, 1872); also works on mathematics, astronomy, cosmography, and medicine, some of which have been published, but others exist only in manuscript.

Other works

A full list of Bar Hebraeus's other works, and of editions of such of them as have been published, will be found in W. Wright's Syriac Literature, pp. 268–281. The more important of them are:

Kethabha dhe-Bhabhatha (Book of the Pupils of the Eyes), a treatise on logic or dialectics

Hewath Hekmetha (Butter of Wisdom), an exposition of the whole philosophy of Aristotle

Sullarat Haunãnãyã (Ascent of the Mind), a treatise on astronomy and cosmography, edited and translated by F. Nau (Paris, 1899)

various medical works

Kethabha dhe-Zalge (Book of Rays), a treatise on grammar

ethical works

poems

Kethabha dhe-Thunnaye Mighaizjzikhanl (Book of Entertaining Stories), edited and translated by E. A. Wallis Budge (London, 1897).

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Този Калоян - може би е някой Йоан, кръстен Кала-йоан , аналогично на българския? Ако е така, значи "нашият" не е пръв с това име, явно е съществувало и преди, или обичаят да се добавя Кала пред името.

Цар на Ниневия???

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"And in the year eleven hundred and twenty-two (A.D. 811) NICEPHOR, king [136] of the RHOMAYE, went against the BULGARAYE, and he captured their royal city, and 'opened' it and destroyed it. And they killed many people, and they also laid out their children upon the ground, and crushed them to death under heavy waggons. And in that year NICEPHOR was ki1led by a certain RHOMAYA. "

И този като Теофан не знае историята на българите.Да нарече Крум римлянин.То че след като избягали при него недокланите от Сердика 6 000 "римляни" войската му е станала римска,така. То че на българите войската все от римски военначалници се води съдейки от техните каменни надписи.И това е верно.

Ама пък на цялата история на българите един Симеон Римски император им е много ,сега и още един Римлянин.Не по малко кръвожаден.

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Защо пишат,че TARKI (TURKEY), като е Тракия .

Това го е писал Бар Хебрей. Явно е сирийски вариант на Тракия, траки.

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"And in the year eleven hundred and twenty-two (A.D. 811) NICEPHOR, king [136] of the RHOMAYE, went against the BULGARAYE, and he captured their royal city, and 'opened' it and destroyed it. And they killed many people, and they also laid out their children upon the ground, and crushed them to death under heavy waggons. And in that year NICEPHOR was ki1led by a certain RHOMAYA. "

И този като Теофан не знае историята на българите.Да нарече Крум римлянин.То че след като избягали при него недокланите от Сердика 6 000 "римляни" войската му е станала римска,така. То че на българите войската все от римски военначалници се води съдейки от техните каменни надписи.И това е верно.

Ама пък на цялата история на българите един Симеон Римски император им е много ,сега и още един Римлянин.Не по малко кръвожаден.

Ами няма да се изненадам, ако Крум просто е бил платил достатъчно на някой византийски офицер от свитата на Никифор, който му е имал зъб, да го убие. Сега като се замисля, малко трудно е толкова лесно някой да се добере до един император, охраняван от гвардия и да го убие. И забележи - Бар Хебрей пише "Никифор бил убит от някакъв ромей", а не "Никифор бил убит от някакъв българин".

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Бар Хебрей всъщност е заимствал от хрониката на Михаил Сирийски, у когото по въпроса пише съвсем същото, а пък Михаил Сирийски - от Дионисий Телмахрски.

Доста логично е да се приеме, че василевсът е бил убит от свой - не само поради трудността българите да се доберат до него, а и защото Никифор от самото начало на кампанията така е пилил нервите на всичките си приближени, че с удоволствие биха му забили ножа. Не е било необходимо Крум да подкупва когото и да е.

Българите обаче смятат, че е пленен и убит по заповед на Крум - вж. например миниатюрите към българския превод на Манасиевата хроника от Ватиканския ръкопис.

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Българите обаче смятат, че е пленен и убит по заповед на Крум - вж. например миниатюрите към българския превод на Манасиевата хроника от Ватиканския ръкопис.

Това не изключва изобщо възможността Крум да е наброил на някой ромейски офицер един калпак жълтици, за да свърши мръсната работа - или да прободе Никифор, или пък да отвори път на българите към шатрата му. Пък и си мисля, онези една камара византийски дезертьори, работещи за Крум през 811-813 г., дали не са били точно хора, извършили някаква измяна в страната си, на само привлечени като арабина-механик Евстатий (ако не му бъркам името) с добра заплата.

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Това не изключва изобщо възможността Крум да е наброил на някой ромейски офицер един калпак жълтици, за да свърши мръсната работа - или да прободе Никифор, или пък да отвори път на българите към шатрата му. Пък и си мисля, онези една камара византийски дезертьори, работещи за Крум през 811-813 г., дали не са били точно хора, извършили някаква измяна в страната си, на само привлечени като арабина-механик Евстатий (ако не му бъркам името) с добра заплата.

Евматий.

Е - може. :smokeing:

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Пък и си мисля, онези една камара византийски дезертьори, работещи за Крум през 811-813 г., дали не са били точно хора, извършили някаква измяна в страната си, на само привлечени като арабина-механик Евстатий (ако не му бъркам името) с добра заплата.

Тя половината армия на арабина-ромей Никифор сигурно е била единоезична и единонародна с армията на Крум и със самия него.

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Бар Хебрей всъщност е заимствал от хрониката на Михаил Сирийски, у когото по въпроса пише съвсем същото, а пък Михаил Сирийски - от Дионисий Телмахрски.

Между впрочем, като стана дума за Михаил Сирийски, някой да знае дали Хрониката му я има достъпна онлайн преведена на някой западен език или руски? Откъсите, с които аз разполагам, съм ги събирал от различни места. Васил Златарски, който пръв у нас обръща внимание на текста на М. Сирийски, е давал откъсите в български превод по френския превод на Шабо, а не по немския на Маркварт и то избирателно. Например (и мисля, че не греша) в "Златарски, Васил. Известието на Михаил Сирийски за преселението на българите. – Златарски, Васил. Избрани произведения. Том 1. С., 1972" следният откъс е спестен:

"Някакъв началник, който бил на изток, не признал Хосров, пренебрегнал младия цар, презрял го и въстанал тиранично. Хосров, като видял, че Бахрам [Чубин] въстанал срещу него и че голяма част от народа била с него, поискал помощ от ромейския цар Маврикиан. Той му пратил тайно писмо чрез посредничеството на началника на ромейските войски, който бил в Ресата...

Маврикиан изпратил при цар Хосров Йоан, главнокомандващия на тракийската войска с 2000 души... и Анастасий, който предвождал 2000 арменци и българи...”

Аз открих този откъс на съвсем неочаквано място: Гусейнов, Рауф. Сирийские источники XII–XIII вв. об Азербайджане. Баку, 1960, с. 35

В превода на Маркварт на немски обаче има едно допълнение, което липсва при Златарски, който се води по френския текст на Шабо за заселването на Булгариос и хората му.

Когато българите започнаха да опустошават Тракия, ромеите начело с Филипик се отправиха срещу тях; те победиха българите и се върнаха...” (Из “Хроника” на якобитския (монофизитски) патриарх Михаил Сирийски (1166-1199). – Гюзелев, Васил. Покръстване и християнизация на българите. Извороведческо изследване с приложение. С., 2006, с. 230)

В бележката си към този пасаж В.Гюзелев само отбелязва, че въпросният Филипик вероятно е византийския император Филипик Вардан (711–713), тоест трябва да мислим, че М.Сирийски нещо се е объркал. Нещата обаче не са толкова прости.

Преди близо 30 години българският арменец Зохраб Касабян публикува едно интересно сведение от арменския превод на Хрониката на Михаил Сирийски. Арменският превод се води по сирийския текст, като едновременно с това в него има и доста свободни преработки и добавки, които дават нови сведения или уточняват казаното. Например в арменския превод на Михаил Сирийски е изпуснат пасажа с идването на Булгариос, обаче това се компенсира от нещо съвсем ново, което липсва в сирийския оригинал. Преводът от средноарменски за Касабян е бил направен от сириолога ст.н.с. Хайк Мелконян от Института за история при Арменската академия на науките, като го е сравнявал със сирийския текст и френския и арменския превод:

Когато Маврикиос царува около 20 години, той стана надменен и горд и игнорираше заслугите на войската. Но когато българите нападнаха и стигнаха до Тракия, византийски войски ги посрещнаха и ги принудиха да отстъпят. След това те (византийските войски), озлобени, се отправиха към Константинопол за отплата от Маврикиос...” (Касабян, Зохраб. Данни за историята на средновековната българска държава в древноарменски и сирийски извори. – Проблеми на културата. Кн. 4, 1981, с. 116–117)

Чисто хронологически това нападение е станало през 602 г. в навечерието на бунта на Фока. Сведението на Касабян съвпада с пасажа при Маркварт, изпуснат от Златарски (цитирам отново): “Когато българите започнаха да опустошават Тракия, ромеите начело с Филипик се отправиха срещу тях; те победиха българите и се върнаха...” Защо датирам Марквартовия пасаж пак към 602 г.? Въпросният Филипик не е Филипик Вардан, управлявал век по-късно, а съвсем друг Филипик - зет на Маврикий и негов пълководец, който очевидно след преврата на Фока се замонашва, за да спаси си живота си и после е бил "изваден от запаса" от Ираклий, за да воюва с персите. За този Филипик пише например арменският епископ Себеос през VІІ век:

"А царят Ераклос изпратил някой си йерей Пилипикос (арменска форма на Филипик заради липсата на Ф в староарменския) като пълководец. Този Пилипикос бил зет на император Маурик и дълго време, бидейки военен, спечелил победи в битките. Но после внезапно на ум му дошло след управлението на Маурик да отреже косите от главата си, да облече свещеническо расо и да даде войнски обет пред църквата. И тъй, Еракл насила го назначил за пълководец и го изпратил на изток начело на голяма войска. През Кесария Кападокийска той се отправил към Арменската страна, стигнал до Айрарат и се разположил на стан в полето пред град Валаршапат." (История на Себеос. Ереван, 1979, с. 114, текст на староарменски).

Затова ако някой има на разположение текста на М.Сирийски или пък знае линк към него, хубаво ще е да постне "българските откъси", за да се прави съпоставка с Бар Хебрей.

Текстът на Себеос за справка:

post-4986-1258545703_thumb.jpg

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И на теб ли, Бруте, да ти правя забележки като на П. Щ.?! Питаш за руски текст, а не си проверил даже на востлит!

Восточная литература, буква М

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За съжаление обаче са само отделни глави и то отнасящи се за късен период, Бруте. :)

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Затова ако някой има на разположение текста на М.Сирийски или пък знае линк към него, хубаво ще е да постне "българските откъси", за да се прави съпоставка с Бар Хебрей.

Текстът на Себеос за справка:

post-4986-1258545703_thumb.jpg

http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5155...e.f2.pagination

сканиран вариант на хрониката на Михаил Сирийски

http://www.templiers.info/forums/index.php...;prev_next=next

обсъждане за хрониката

http://www.vostlit.info/Texts/rus4/Mychel_Syr/frametext3.htm

тека има части от хрониката, преведени на руски език

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За съжаление обаче са само отделни глави и то отнасящи се за късен период, Бруте. :)

Като за пет минути гугъл през работно време - толкова. Предвид обстоятелствата, моля да бъде извинен. Иванко Тертер явно е бил по свободен.

Бруте.

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Ето я І книга на френски във формат комуто какъвто душа иска.

http://www.archive.org/details/ChroniqueDe...sc.1translation

Бруте :)

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Този Калоян - може би е някой Йоан, кръстен Кала-йоан , аналогично на българския? Ако е така, значи "нашият" не е пръв с това име, явно е съществувало и преди, или обичаят да се добавя Кала пред името.

Цар на Ниневия???

В текста, където е споменат този Калоян, се говори и за неговия син Теодор, и за патриарх Арсений.

Става дума за никейския император Йоан III Дука Ватацес (1222 - 1254), бащата на Теодор II Ласкарис (1254 - 1258).

Гръцката форма "Калойоанос" е ползвана не само от българи (цар Калоян, севастократор Калоян и пр.), но и - доста широко - от самите ромеи. Доколкото си спомням първият ромейски Йоан, наричан "Калойоан" в изворите, е император Йоан II Комнин (1118 - 1143). Така е наричан често и Йоан Ватацес, а по-късно - и Йоан V Палеолог (1341 - 1391). Формата "Калоян" е използвана за някои от тези императори дори в български източници - напр. в Анонимната българска летопис от XV век (Йоан V), a и - ако не ме лъже паметта, разбира се - в една от българските царски грамоти.

Колкото до Ниневия - това е според мен архаизация.

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поне на мен голяма работа на езика на галите няма да ми свърши. Ще трабва да е на езика на московитите или на албионците.

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поне на мен голяма работа на езика на галите няма да ми свърши. Ще трабва да е на езика на московитите или на албионците.

във връзката дадена от мен текста е даден и в оригинал на арменски, но не знам дали ще ти свърши работа :biggrin:

Йончев е прав за Йоан Дука Ватаци, според мен.

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Ето френския превод и мой превод отдолу на сведението на Михаил Сирийски за българо-византийска война през 602 г. Златарски определено е решил, че българската наука няма нужда да се "затормозява" с подобни факти. :)

(Преводът на френски не е на Шабо, а на Марк Швайцер - Oeuvre numérisée et traduite par Marc Szwajcer)

http://remacle.org/bloodwolf/historiens/mi...onique1.htm#83a

"Dans cette même année, Vahram, prince perse, chassa le roi Khosrov, qui vint à Ourha (82) et envoya prier Maurice de lui servir de père, et de lui envoyer du secours pour l’aider à conquérir son royaume. L’empereur lui donna des troupes arméniennes et thraces (83), avec lesquelles Khosrov recouvra ses états. Les Perses abandonnèrent Dara et Razain (84) aux Grecs. Maurice accorda sa fille Marie (85) en mariage à Khosrov, et fit partir avec elle des évêques et des prêtres. Khosrov éleva en l’honneur de sa fille trois églises, et le patriarche d’Antioche se transporta pour les bénir. L’une fut consacrée à la mère de Dieu, l’autre reçut le nom des saints Apôtres, et la troisième celui de saint Sarkis (Sergius). Une paix profonde régnait à cette époque.

Maurice, enorgueilli de sa prospérité, méprisa l’armée et lui retira la solde et les largesses qu’elle était accoutumée de recevoir. Il arriva que les Boulgares (86) firent une incursion en Thrace (87). Les troupes grecques marchèrent contre eux et, après les avoir chassés, revinrent à Constantinople; puis elles députèrent vers Maurice pour lui porter ces paroles: Le Seigneur a accordé la paix pendant ton règne, mais les militaires ne vivent pas de la paix seulement. Si les présents que nous recevions ne nous sont pas rendus, ainsi que notre solde habituelle pendant la paix, tiens-nous pour tes ennemis. » Mais ils n’obtinrent qu’une dure réponse, comme Israël de Roboam (88). Alors l’armée dit à Pierre, frère de Maurice, de consentir à ce qu’elle mît l’empereur à mort, et lui de régner à sa place. Mais Pierre, loin d’acquiescer à cette demande, en donna avis à son frère. Aussitôt Maurice s’enfuit à Chalcédoine; les soldats, s’étant mis à sa poursuite l’atteignirent et, l’ayant tué, donnèrent la couronne à leur général Phocas. C’était la vingtième année du règne de Maurice. Le roi des Perses, apprenant la triste fin de ce prince et de ses fils, fut saisi d’une profonde douleur, et le pleura longtemps avec toute sa nation. "

"Маврикий, възгордял се от успеха си, презря войската и я лиши от заплащането й и от щедростите, които я беше приучил да получава. Случи се [така], че българите извършиха нашествие в Тракия. Гръцките войски се насочиха срещу тях и след като ги прогониха, се завърнаха в Константинопол; после те проводиха пратеници до Маврикий да удържи на думата си: "Господ въдвори мир през твоето царуване, само войниците не живяха в мир. Ако подаръците, които получавахме, не ни бъдат дадени, както и нашите обичайни мирновременни заплати, считай ни за врагове". Но те получиха само твърд отговор, подобно на Израил от Ровоам. Тогава войската каза на Петър, брата на Маврикий, да се съгласи тя да го предаде на смърт, а той самият да царува на негово място. Но Петър, далече [от мисълта] да се съгласи с това искане, предал предложението й на своя брат. Тутакси Маврикий избяга в Халкедон; войниците, които се бяха впуснали да го преследват, го настигнаха и преди да го убият, дадоха короната на пълководеца Фока. Била двадесетата година от царуването на Маврикий. Царят на персите, като научил за тъжния край на този княз и на синовете му, бил обхванат от дълбока скръб и плакал дълго заедно с целия си народ."

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Ами няма да се изненадам, ако Крум просто е бил платил достатъчно на някой византийски офицер от свитата на Никифор, който му е имал зъб, да го убие. Сега като се замисля, малко трудно е толкова лесно някой да се добере до един император, охраняван от гвардия и да го убие. И забележи - Бар Хебрей пише "Никифор бил убит от някакъв ромей", а не "Никифор бил убит от някакъв българин".

Мисля, че отговорът се крие тук:

http://remacle.org/bloodwolf/historiens/mi.../chronique2.htm

"Nicéphore, empereur des Grecs, entreprit une expédition dans le pays des Bulgares où il déploya le plus grand courage et parvint jusqu'à leur capitale. Il y exerça des massacres tellement barbares qu'il faisait ramasser les petits enfants et les faisait écraser sous des meules à égrener le blé.[90] Un Franc, témoin de sa conduite atroce et féroce, l'ayant surpris sans sa garde, lui porta un coup inattendu qui l'étendit raide mort.[91] L'armée grecque se mit alors en retraite, et proclama empereur un certain Léon, qui fut tué par le général Michel lequel lui succéda.[92]"

"Никифор, император на гърците, предприе поход в страната на българите, където той прояви най-голяма смелост и достигна чак до столицата им. Там той извърши толкова варварски кланета, че карал да събират малки деца и ги поставял да бъдат премазвани от воденични камъни за смилане на жито. Един франк, свидетел на неговото жестоко и свирепо държане, го изненадал сред телохранителите му, нанесъл му неочакван удар, който веднага го прострял мъртъв. Тогава гръцката войска започна да отстъпва и обяви за император някой си Леон, който бе убит от пълководеца Михаил, който го наследи."

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"And in the year eleven hundred and twenty-two (A.D. 811) NICEPHOR, king [136] of the RHOMAYE, went against the BULGARAYE, and he captured their royal city, and 'opened' it and destroyed it. And they killed many people, and they also laid out their children upon the ground, and crushed them to death under heavy waggons. And in that year NICEPHOR was ki1led by a certain RHOMAYA. "

И този като Теофан не знае историята на българите.Да нарече Крум римлянин.То че след като избягали при него недокланите от Сердика 6 000 "римляни" войската му е станала римска,така. То че на българите войската все от римски военначалници се води съдейки от техните каменни надписи.И това е верно.

Ама пък на цялата история на българите един Симеон Римски император им е много ,сега и още един Римлянин.Не по малко кръвожаден.

Брилянтна работа Аспандиате! :good:

Да вметна само, че "laid out their children upon the ground, and crushed them to death" си е клише, което минава като "червена нишка" през византийската хронография, но за сметка на това в "красивия" израз няма нищо вярно! Просто - хипербола или метафора с цел да убеди четящия или слушащ в жестокостта и безчовечността на извършителите на такива "подвизи". Тръгва още от "Илиадата" и Библията!

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  • Глобален Модератор

:bg: Браво!

Никак не изключвам у Михаил Сирийски да има още текстове, които представляват интерес за българската история, но които са останали без внимание досега. Той е твърде ценен източник и минава за изключително точен.

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